Abridgeis a structure that provides a pathway across streams, ravines, or other obstacles. The earliest bridges were made by nature and consisted of materials including fallen logs, rocks, or tangled vines growing across the gap.
Structural engineersare concerned with the design and construction of all types of structures, including bridges. The first structural engineers were untrained and simply made improvements on nature’s bridges. For example, to improve on a fallen log bridge, another log could be rolled beside the first one. These bridges are now called now calledsimple beam bridges.
A flat piece of paper is not very strong, but if you fold the paper so that it has sides, it becomes stronger and can supportweight.
Discover For Yourself
Place two books about 6 inches (15 cm) apart. Make a bridge across the gap between the books using a strip of copy or notebook paper about 4 x 8 inches (5 by 25 cm). Place a button or coin (penny) in the center of the bridge. The results will be that the paper bridge collapses under theweight.
Remove the paper bridge and test how flexible it is. Do this by holding the ends of the bridge and try to bend it back and forth. You will find that the paper is very flexible, so much so that even theweightof a button or coin causes it to collapse.
A structural engineer’s job would be to change the paper bridge to make it less flexible and more supportive of addedweight. One way to do this is to add sides to the bridge. Instead of adding parts to the paper, sides can be formed by folding the paper so that it has two sides as shown.
Place the paper bridge across the gap between the books and add buttons or coins. How many will your paper bridge hold?
Test the flexibility of the bridge by holding its ends and trying to bend it back and forth as before. You will find that the folded sides make the bridge less flexible and more capable of holding addedweight.
Simple Ideas Can Be Science Projects
So, how can a paper bridge be used as a science project?
1.测试平整折叠的纸张都可以的能力你researchon bridges. Other things toresearchwould be to read about bridges and theforcesacting on them as well as how different structures increase their ability to span gaps and supportweight. .
3. How could any of the changes in step 2 affect the paper bridge? This is the part that you are going to be observing and it is called the dependent variable. Examples ofdependent variablesare: the amount ofweightthe bridge can hold and the distance the bridge can span. Note: For each of these you must have some way to measure them. Theweight桥可以支持可以通过确定将多少按钮或硬币支持来确定。桥将跨越的距离可以通过使用相同的量来确定weightfor each test, but change the distance between the books. The results from the test has to be compared to something else–which would be the control bridge (this is the bridge made with the original procedure.) CAN YOU THINK OF OTHERDEPENDENT VARIABLES?
4. Using the Variable Examples in steps 2 and 3, six different questions can be written. Note that each question compares ONE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE to ONE DEPENDENT VARIABLE.
- How does the size of the paper affect the amount ofweightthe bridge will support?
- How does the size of the paper affect the amount the distance the bridge will span?
- How does the type of paper affect the amount ofweightthe bridge will support?
- How does the type of paper affect the amount the distance the bridge will span?
- How does the shape of the paper affect the amount ofweightthe bridge will support?
- How does the shape of the paper affect the amount the distance the bridge will span?
5.Your project investigation should be to compare two things: ONE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE and ONE DEPENDENT VARIABLE. So, choose one of the questions from step 4 or design one of your own.
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For more ideas about other engineering activities, see: